Cannabis – Cannabis is a plant that has been used by humans for centuries for various purposes.
To date, approximately 165 active substances called cannabinoids have been identified in the cannabis inflorescence, and over 100 cannabinoids of which the two main and best-known substances are THC and CBD. Unlike THC, which is a psychoactive substance, CBD does not affect consciousness.
The Cannabis plant has different strains, which differ from each other in the concentrations of the active cannabinoids in them. The Hemp plant has a higher CBD to THC ratio while the Marijuana plant has a higher THC to CBD ratio. In the UK only hemp plants may be used to produce CBD products.
Cannabinoids – The active ingredients (chemical compounds) found in the cannabis plant. The cannabis plant has so far identified over 100 cannabinoids, but the human body also produces cannabinoids itself. The cannabinoids produced in the human body are called endocannabinoids, while the cannabinoids found in cannabis are naturally occurring and referred to as phytocannabinoids.
THC – Tetrahydrocannabinol ( Tetrahydrocannabinol ) – This cannabinoid is mostly associated with its psychoactive effect on the brain, causing the “high” feeling. Israeli professors Rafael Meshulam and Yechiel Gaoni, where the first to isolate THC as part of a study they conducted at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel in 1964.
CBD (cannabidiol Cannabidiol ) – The other main active ingredients of cannabis.
In 2017, the conclusions of a committee of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) were published, which determined that CBD is not addictive and does not cause side effects.
In 2018, the FDA first approved the use of a drug called Epidiolex, which contains CBD, for the treatment of epilepsy patients. In 2020, the drug was also approved for the treatment of a rare genetic syndrome.
The many virtues of CBD have been studied in recent years in dozens of studies, and it’s legalisation in countries around the world is growing rapidly.
CGB (Cannabigerol Cannabigero) – A cannabinoid that is usually found in small amounts in cannabis, but most of the other cannabinoids develop from its chemical structure.
CBN (Cannabinol) – A (to a small extent) psychoactive cannabinoid that is usually found in low doses in the cannabis plant, unless the plant is stored optimally for a long time. In such a state, the THC is oxidized, damaged or simply aged, and in the process of its chemical deterioration it becomes CBN.
CBC (Knbikromin Cannabichromene ) – This cannabinoid does not produce any psychoactivity.
Until recently, it was considered a minor in the cannabis plant, but studies of recent years claim that it is found in the plant in greater quantities than CBD, and that in fact, certain cannabinoids identified as CBD are actually CBC.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS) – An internal nervous system found in the bodies of all mammals, as well as in the bodies of other animals. The system consists of dozens of receptors that are spread throughout all organs and systems of the body, and help the proper functioning of many processes in the body.
Marijuana – A cannabis strain that contains a high concentration of THC and a relatively low concentration of CBD. The name marijuana comes from the Spanish language. Also called genja in Hindi.
Hemp – A cannabis strain that contains a particularly low concentration of THC – 0.3% at most – and is therefore considered legal in many countries (whose numbers are constantly increasing). Used in various industries – construction, fuel, textile and more.
Hemp Oil – An oil extracted from hemp seeds . Has many essential properties such as aiding in hormonal balance, reducing bad cholesterol, regulating blood sugar levels and strengthening the skin’s ability to protect and elasticity. In addition, it is rich in vitamin A, vitamin D, omega 3 and omega 5.
Many people confuse hemp oil with CBD oil, but these are two completely different oils. Hemp oil is extracted from plant seeds, in which the CBD concentration is zero.
Chemovars – Chemical variants – The different varieties of the plant, are classified according to the chemical composition of the substances present in it. Also called Chemotypes. The varieties are divided into 3 main categories:
- Varieties in which THC is dominant
- Varieties in which CBD is dominant
- Varieties in which THC and CBD are balanced
Cannabidiol acid (CBDA) – An acid found in the cannabis plant and constitutes the “source molecule” of CBD, that is – the initial form of CBD, which exists in the cannabis plant before the decarboxylation process, which occurs by heating as well as in the natural growth process. Despite being the source of CBD, cannabidic acid has a different chemical composition and therefore does not have the same properties.
In the natural form of cannabis, all active ingredients exist in an acidic form: the acidic form of THC, for example, is called THCA, and the “superacid”, which is the source of CBDA, THCA, and most active ingredients in the cannabis plant, is called CBGA.
De-carboxylation (Decarboxylation) – Also referred to as ‘decarb’ or decarbing’. By definition it is a chemical reaction that removes the carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide. This first step it transforming the cannabis plant into an oil or tincture. This step converts the cannabinoids into their active form using heat, light, cofactors or solvents.
RAW – A nickname for fresh cannabis.
Terpenes – A group of herbal compounds that are found in the cannabis plant alongside cannabinoids and also contribute to many properties of the plant. The terpenes are present in all types of plants and are responsible for the specific smell and taste of each plant.
Terpenoids / Isopreneoids – A type of terpene, with a slightly different chemical composition.
Flavonoids – Another group of compounds found in various plants and in the cannabis plant in particular, which have an effect on the color, taste and smell of the plant as well as its health effects.
The entourage effect – The name given to describing the overall effect of cannabis, an effect that depends not only on the composition of the cannabinoids of a particular strain, but also on the terpenes, flavonoids and the interrelationships that exist between them.
Non-intoxicating – A term used to describes an effect that does not intoxicate, or cause a “high” feeling. Refers in many places to the description of the effect of CBD, which does not bind to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system that are responsible for the feeling of “high” and therefore does not cause it.
Psychoactive – A term which describes an effect on consciousness, consciousness and perception, which is created as a result of consuming substances that have an effect on the brain and nervous system. Many prescription drugs, such as painkillers, or various anesthetics are psychoactive substances.
While THC is defined as a psychoactive substance, the effect of CBD on the brain and central nervous system is done indirectly and does not produce a psychoactive effect. Therefore, many countries in the world recognize CBD as a safe substance and define it as legal to use.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil (Full spectrum CBD oil) – A CBD extract that contains the full range of cannabinoids, including THC, together with terpenes and flavonoids.
Broad Spectrum CBD oil – An oil that contains the entire range of cannabinoids except THC.
Pure CBD Oil (Isolate) – An oil that contains pure CBD extract only.
Neurotransmitter – A molecule used to transmit chemical transmissions, for communication between the various nerve cells of the central nervous system. In the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids are used as a type of neurotransmitter.
Receptor (receptor – receptor ) – A protein found in the cell, receives external information and transfers it to the cell to act accordingly. Nerve receptors respond to information coming from neurotransmitters. Receptors of the endocannabinoid system respond to cannabinoids.
Inverse signal (Retrograde signaling) – Biological process which makes the signal inverse route, from the objective to the original cell. Cannabinoids act in the form of an inverted signal.
The stimulating neurotransmitter (glutamic acid GLUTAMATE) – One of the most common amino acids found in humans, animals and plants, is used as a stimulating neurotransmitter, with a stimulating effect on nerve activity. When cannabinoids “affect backwards” (in the form of an inverted signal) on nerve cells that release glutamate, they actually inhibit its release and cause a calming effect.
The soothing neurotransmitter ( GABA ) – Another amino acid found in humans, animals and plants. It is a derivative of glutamic acid. Serves as a sedative neurotransmitter, with an inhibitory effect on neural activity. When cannabinoids “backfire” (in the form of an inverted signal) on nerve cells that release GABA, they actually inhibit its release and cause a stimulant effect.
Anandamide – An endocannabinoid that takes an important part in the process of fetal development, and is related to the feelings of happiness and joy, from which it got its name (Ananda in Sanskrit = inner happiness). The anandamide was first isolated in 1992 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, by Prof. Rafael Meshulam’s research team.
Similar in some properties to phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD , and similar to them moving in the form of an inverted signal. Its production in the brain, as well as the production of other endocannabinoids, may be affected by a diet rich in fatty acids such as omega-3s.
2AG – Another endocannabinoid isolated by Prof. Meshulam’s research team in 1992. Found in the central nervous system, brain, spine and breast milk, studies claim that it triggers hypersensitivity.
Faty Acid Amide Hydrolase – a fatty acid that causes the breakdown of anandamide. As a result, the level of happiness decreases and the risk of developing anxiety and depression increases.Attempts are being made to use FAAH inhibitors of synthetic origin for anxiety and depression. Studies show that CBD acts as a natural FAAH inhibitor.